However, Dr. Kumakhov first suggested the "bundling" of thousands of capillaries to focus and control X-rays.
In contrast, a grazing incidence telescope with just one parabolic mirror could focus X-rays, but only very close to the centre of the field of view as it would suffer from extreme coma.
These extremely intense and focused X-rays allow scientists to peer into the depths of the nanoworld by focusing the photons on a single small area.
An alternative method of focusing X-rays is to use a tiny fresnel zone plate of concentric gold or nickel rings on a silicon dioxide substrate.
XM-1 uses an X-ray lens to focus X-rays on a CCD, in a manner similar to an optical microscope.
We learned much of American bomb technology from open-source papers on focusing X-rays for astrophysical observations.
(That said, scientists have had some success focusing X-rays with microscopic Fresnel zone plates made from gold, and by critical-angle reflection inside long tapered capillaries.)
After graduating, he developed zone plates-concentric circles of alternating opaque and transparent materials to use diffraction instead of refraction to focus X-rays.
In addition, the ability to focus X-rays has developed enormously-allowing the production of high-quality images.
If the mirror is made with a convex surface, it can be used to focus X-rays.