The ontology of signs as linguistic and non-linguistic entities: a cognitive perspective.
There is a propositional logic of types, which denote sets of linguistic (phonological, syntactic, or semantic) entities.
There is a (Curry-Howard) proof term calculus, whose terms denote linguistic (phonological, syntactic, or semantic) entities.
It is important to distinguish between the predicate 'is a pain' which is a linguistic entity, and the property denoted by the predicate.
Rather, IL conceives linguistic entities as interrelated, "multidimensional" objects, which are typically modelled as set-theoretic constructs.
The metalinguistic proposal (Goodman, 1965), so named because, at any rate in the first instance, it presents conditionals as being about other linguistic entities, is along the following lines.
It is a nominalist approach that denies that natural kinds and linguistic entities have substantive ontological implications.
Most importantly, a distinction is made between the definition of a term and the identification of corresponding linguistic entities in given idiolect systems.
In this, SMS language proves that it exists as a dynamic social and linguistic entity that is constantly changing, as conventionalized languages do.
The language is variously described a creole language, a dialect of English, or a linguistic entity fitting neither category.