This perspective is consistent with both painting and with image formation using a bas relief.
These two cases are examples of image formation in lenses.
A requirement for image formation is interaction with fields of electromagnetic radiation.
There is no condition on image formation, the only goal is to transfer the light from the source to the target.
The history of optometry can be traced back to the early studies on optics and image formation by the eye.
Yet in 1600 Kepler made important contributions to optical science, especially to the theory of image formation.
However, he later embraced to correct role of gaseous ionisation during image formation.
In reality, image formation is at best diffraction limited and point-like images are not possible.
They both made theoretical calculations on image formation in optical systems and had also studied the optics of the eye.
However, when the detected light is coherent, image formation is linear in the complex field.