Two US scientists have been awarded the chemistry prize for a discovery that has changed scientists' views about the origin of life.
Seaborg and a colleague shared the chemistry prize in 1951 for research on elements like plutonium.
The chemistry prize went to a mathematician and a physicist for finding ways to predict the nature of new molecules, including potentially important pharmaceuticals.
By the time he received the chemistry prize at the age of 53, he had long been recognized as a chemist's chemist.
Thomas Cech won the 1989 chemistry prize.
Dr. Elias James Corey, 62, a professor at Harvard University, received the chemistry prize.
The Nobel committee pointed out that the achievements of Dr. Ernst, who was awarded the chemistry prize, "often fall in the border area between chemistry and physics."
Three scientists shared the chemistry prize.
In 1980, Walter Gilbert and Sanger shared half of the chemistry prize "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".
The chemistry prize also focused on electronics advances.