Neither national nor international track and field officials have announced that she failed a drug test.
An alternative way of looking at this phenomenon is to see the field official as a 'street-level bureaucrat'.
But field officials ruled that he had stepped over the line of scrimmage before throwing: no touchdown.
He denied them, and Canadian track and field officials preferred we not hire him.
For the first two seasons, field officials traveled to games separately from replay officials.
He gained a reputation as a top track and field official.
South African track and field officials have voted not to accept an invitation to the world championships, which begin next week in Tokyo.
As a former athlete and current track and field official I must speak out.
He joined the union as a field official in 1972 after working as a machinist.