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The ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase (literal translation) and paraphrase.
Metaphrase modifies the interpretation rules used for pre-existing expressions.
Metaphrase is one of the three ways of transferring, along with paraphrase and imitation, according to John Dryden.
Nevertheless, "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation.
Unlike "paraphrase," which has an ordinary use in literature theory, the term "metaphrase" is only used in translation theory.
Metaphrase corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence"; and paraphrase, to "dynamic equivalence."
(Metaphrase is a useful word, meaning "direct, word-for-word translation," in contrast to paraphrase, a loose interpretation.)
A Metaphrase of the Book Of Ecclesiastes by Gregory Thaumaturgus.
In everyday usage, metaphrase means literalism; however, metaphrase is also the translation of poetry into prose.
Unlike a metaphrase, which represents a "formal equivalent" of the source, a paraphrase represents a "dynamic equivalent" thereof.
In regard to style, the Victorians' aim, achieved through far-reaching metaphrase (literality) or pseudo-metaphrase, was to constantly remind readers that they were reading a foreign classic.
In translation theory, another term for "literal translation" is "metaphrase"; and for phrasal ("sense") translation - "paraphrase."
Metaphrase is a translation term referring to literal translation, i.e., "word by word and line by line" translation.
The term "metaphrase" is first used by Philo Judaeus (20 BCE) in De vita Mosis.
While a metaphrase attempts to translate a text literally, a paraphrase conveys the essential thought expressed in a source text - if necessary, at the expense of literality.
He attributes the English bottom line - one sense of which is "the minimal commitment required to conclude this deal" - to a metaphrase from the Yiddish untershte shure.
Standish described three classes of language extension, which he called paraphrase, orthophrase, and metaphrase (otherwise paraphrase and metaphrase being translation terms).
Generally, the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those languages and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating among them.
Quintilian draws a distinction between metaphrase and paraphrase in the pedagogical practice of imitation and reworking classical texts; he points out that metaphrase changes a word, and paraphrase, a phrase: a distinction that is also followed by Renaissance scholars.
Strictly speaking, the concept of metaphrase - of "word-for-word translation" - is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language often carries more than one meaning; and because a similar given meaning may often be represented in a given language by more than one word.