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Optical spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize charge-transfer bands.
This absorption is described as an intervalence charge-transfer band.
No relationship between the molar absorptivity of the charge-transfer band and the formation constant was apparent from these spectra.
A well-known example is the complex formed by iodine when combined with starch, which exhibits an intense blue charge-transfer band.
A well-known example of a reductive charge-transfer band is in the spectrum of the permanganate ion,.
More dramatic examples of thermochromism are found in materials that undergo phase transition or exhibit charge-transfer bands near the visible region.
These optical absorption bands are often referred to as charge-transfer bands (CT bands).
The intensity of charge-transfer bands in the absorbance spectrum is strongly dependent upon the degree (equilibrium constant) of this association reaction.
A transfer of spectral weight from the Cu-O charge-transfer band to the mid- and far-infrared regions accompanies the progression to metallic character.
The absorption wavelength of charge-transfer bands, i.e., the charge-transfer transition energy, is characteristic of the specific type of donor and acceptor entities.
For example, trends in the highly informative optical charge-transfer bands of mononuclear and binuclear halide complexes are well described by density functional calculations on the frontier-orbital domain.
The charge-transfer bands of transition metal complexes result from shift of charge density between molecular orbitals (MO) that are predominantly metal in character and those that are predominantly ligand in character.
This conclusion is supported by the observation of an intramolecular charge-transfer band in the u.v. spectra of the compounds containing an A ring of high electron affinity and a D ring of low ionization potential.
As with benzenoid donors, the electronic absorption spectra of the molecular complexes of simple or condensed sulfur or oxygen-containing five-membered heterocycles with TCNE (or DDQ) often show two charge-transfer bands.