Infection with C. pneumoniae induces both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.
This sub division, the cell-mediated immune response, is hampered by a lack of a certain type of white blood cell called the T-cell.
Unlike the other types, it is not antibody mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response.
In men, cell-mediated response - the activation of white blood cells and other kinds of cellular defenses - was increased.
There is, however, a clear need for adjuvants able to induce a cell-mediated immune response as well.
A cell-mediated immune response is crucial for effective vaccination against intracellular pathogens and chronic infections.
There are no data yet on whether cell-mediated immune responses occurred.
The D. melanogaster immune system can be divided into two responses: humoral and cell-mediated.
It plays a role in regulating cell-mediated immune responses.
Ideally a vaccine would enable the development of anti-plasmodial antibodies in addition to generating an elevated cell-mediated response.