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The net effect of direct and indirect relations is called trophic cascades.
This absence of the apex predator has led to a trophic cascade in many areas.
Such wide-ranging effects on lower levels of an ecosystem are termed trophic cascades.
Many of the barriers to top-down trophic cascades also promote stability.
The trophic cascade in lakes has been researched by Carpenter and Hall.
In some cases, it leads to ecological collapse, trophic cascades and the death of many species within the ecosystem.
"Wolves have caused a trophic cascade," he said.
Although the existence of trophic cascades is not controversial, ecologists have long debated how ubiquitous they are.
Subsequent research has documented trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems, including:
The park is a commonly cited example of apex predators affecting an ecosystem through a trophic cascade.
In 1982 he began work on the Trophic Cascades Project, which involved the dynamics of the lake ecosystems.
The more I read about trophic cascades, the more important predation appears to be in shaping the ecosystem.
This could ultimately lead to reef deterioration and could negatively influence Atlantic trophic cascade.
There are a number of other examples of trophic cascades involving large terrestrial mammals, including:
This management technique exploits the close interconnections of the food web, trophic cascade, to send a ripple down through the living community.
William Ripple is the author of more than 85 peer-reviewed scientific articles, most of which deal with trophic cascades.
In the same way that a trophic cascade can occur, it is expected that 'interaction cascades' take place.
Trophic cascades across ecosystems.
The removal of top-level predators, often, recently, through human agency, can radically cause (or disrupt) trophic cascades.
A trophic cascade is a type of top-down interaction that describes the indirect effects of predators.
Additionally, well documented trophic cascades at that point in time all occurred in food chains with algae as the primary producer.
Critics pointed out that published terrestrial trophic cascades generally involved smaller subsets of the food web (often only a single plant species).
This was quite different from aquatic trophic cascades, in which the biomass of producers as a whole were reduced when predators were removed.
This stewardship technique is predicated upon an advanced understanding of the conditions in the ecosystem and modeling the dynamic relationships down the trophic cascade.
Trophic cascades, Strong argued, may only occur in communities with fast-growing producers which lack defenses against herbivory.
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