Dodatkowe przykłady dopasowywane są do haseł w zautomatyzowany sposób - nie gwarantujemy ich poprawności.
Later he initiated work on x-ray transition radiation detectors.
Optical transition radiation is emitted both in the forward direction and reflected by the interface surface.
This is exploited in the transition radiation detectors of high-velocity particles.
Particles crossing the interface of two media with different dielectric constant produce transition radiation.
Transition radiation was demonstrated theoretically by Ginzburg and Frank in 1945.
At each interface between materials, the probability of transition radiation increases with the relativistic gamma factor.
They showed the existence of Transition radiation when a charged particle perpendicularly passed through a boundary between two different homogeneous media.
Underneath the lowest tracker layer a transition radiation detector (TRD) is installed.
'Transition radiation' is produced by relativistic charged particles when they cross the interface of two media of different dielectric constants.
The TRD detects transition radiation of relativistic particles with a lorentz factor γ exceeding 1000.
By placing interfaces (foils) of very precise thickness and foil separation, coherence effects will modify the transition radiation's spectral and angular characteristics.
Between the straws, materials with widely varying indices of refraction cause ultra-relativistic charged particles to produce transition radiation and leave much stronger signals in some straws.
Transition radiation (TR) is a form of electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through inhomogeneous media, such as a boundary between two different media.
Theoretical discovery of X-Ray transition radiation, which was directly proportional to the Lorenz factor, made possible further use of TR in high-energy physics.
Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation, X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials.
This is not as precise as those for the other two detectors, but it was necessary to reduce the cost of covering a larger volume and to have transition radiation detection capability.
A transition radiation detector (TRD) is a particle detector using the -dependent threshold of transition radiation in a stratified material.
He is known for developing the Theory of Transition Radiation and showing the feasibility of functional transition radiation detectors (TRDs)
The Transition radiation tracker (TRT), the outermost component of the inner detector, is a combination of a straw tracker and a transition radiation detector.
PERDaix uses a time of flight system, a scintillating fiber tracker with SiPM readout, and a transition radiation detector in combination with a permanent magnet to measure particle fluxes.
Interference phenomenon in optical transition radiation and its application to particle beam diagnostics and multiple-scattering measurements, L. Wartski et al., Journal of Applied Physics - August 1975 - Volume 46, Issue 8, pp.
According to Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky and R. Wilson, Alikhanian made "very important contributions to science, in particular, in the use of transition radiation as an important tool in particle detection and identification".
Usually several layers of alternating materials or composites are used to collect enough transition radiation photons for an adequate measurement-for example, one layer of inert material followed by one layer of detector (e.g. microstrip gas chamber), and so on.
Many of the detectors invented and used so far are ionization detectors (of which gaseous ionization detectors and semiconductor detectors are most typical) and scintillation detectors; but other, completely different principles have also been applied, like Čerenkov light and transition radiation.
In 1953 his experimental confirmation of the existence of the transition radiation, which was predicted by Ginzburg and Ilya Frank in 1945, and the effect of decreasing ionization losses for narrow electron-positron pairs, known as the Chudakov Effect, are among Chudakov's famous works.