When dressed for public order policing, officers wear coloured epaulettes indicating their respective roles.
The Tsar was forbidden to wear epaulettes.
However, some parts of the French uniform were ignored, such as enlisted men wearing epaulettes and collar ornaments.
It was supposed to look like they were wearing epaulettes but it never did.
Every one of them wore epaulettes on both shoulders, indicating more than three years' seniority.
By 1846 all officers wore epaulettes.
The French Foreign Legion continued to wear their green and red epaulettes, except for a brief break in the 1920s.
Then, about eight years ago, Mr. Jackson arrived wearing white gloves and epaulettes, accompanied by bodyguards with walkie-talkies, she said.
"I don't wear epaulettes," says Ms. Heyman, who is, nevertheless, the captain.
All students wear epaulettes with their year (designated by stripes) and service shown on them.