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Thus, during synkinesis, a variable of these functions are involved.
Until May 2007, there was no clinical scale to measure synkinesis.
Facial retraining has shown to be very successful with almost a 60-70% average decrease in synkinesis reported after 7 months.
External pterygoid-levator synkinesis is the more common group.
Unfortunately, this has been shown to be disruptive to normal re-innervation and can promote the development of synkinesis.
This course of action has been experimentally proven to significantly reduce the development of synkinesis.
Botox is a new and versatile tool for the treatment for synkinesis.
Other less common variations of synkinesis involving the cranial nerves include:
It was able to mimic actions but only with the help of mirror movements executed by the right hand (enabling synkinesis).
The most common symptoms of facial synkinesis include:
A shoulder-facial synkinesis in normal human subjects.
The aberrant nerve regeneration hypothesis is the most widely accepted mechanism for synkinesis.
It was then later observed that people who had post-facial palsy synkinesis also benefited from this therapy.
Almost all procedures show synkinesis, meaning involuntary movements appear during the voluntary movements.
Marcus Gunn jaw-winking is an example of a pathologic congenital synkinesis.
In patients with severe facial nerve paralysis, facial synkinesis will inevitably develop.
Practical surgical procedures used for treating synkinesis are neurolysis and selective myectomy.
The two cases of synkinesis most commonly studied involve the facial muscles and the extraocular muscles.
Neurolysis has been shown to be effective in relieving synkinesis but only temporarily and unfortunately symptoms return much worse than originally.
An advantage of partial transection is minimizing tongue weakness and purported decrease in synkinesis.
To reduce synkinesis, facial retraining teaches the patient techniques for increasing wanted movements while focusing on restricting unwanted movement.
This condition is characterized as a synkinesis: when two or more muscles that are independently innervated have either simultaneous or coordinated movements.
After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of any two of these three cranial nerves have been shown to be involved with extra-ocular synkinesis.
This accommodation-convergence synkinesis can result in esotropia, or eyes that turn in when the ratio between accommodation and convergence is unusually high.
Biofeedback therapy for facial synkinesis aims to increase the patient's awareness of the facial muscle posture and movement.
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