There are a lot of energy companies that engaged in sham transactions.
"This was absolutely a sham transaction, and it was an 11th hour deal," said one former Enron executive who was briefed on the deal.
Robert A. Wright, Amcor's president, says no one at headquarters knew of any sham transactions.
By improperly including overhead expenses or sham transactions as part of their charity work, nonprofits can appear more efficient than they really are.
The sham transaction being investigated by regulators occurred shortly after that.
Global Crossing faces accusations that it used sham transactions to increase revenue and that it misled investors about its financial health.
"This scheme was accomplished through sham transactions."
The companies apologized for the sham transactions and said they would have to restate some of their financial reports.
The lower court had found the technique to be built on "sham transactions" with no purpose other than generating tax savings.
More troubling, and perhaps hardest to answer: How can the telecommunications industry, now plagued by suspicions of sham transactions and accounting, right itself?