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Two men developed temporary referred sensation after suffering from shingles.
Here, the referred sensation occurred in the areas previously affected by the shingles.
Mittelmann (1920) has reported that 8 out of 9 people questioned experienced referred sensations.
However, there is no symmetrical distribution found between trigger zones and sites of referred sensation.
Other examples of referred sensation include sensations of temperature, pain, and pressure.
The question of which neural processes are related to non-painful referred sensations has not been resolved.
A scratch on the trigger zone creates a referred sensation in a distant body part but not vice versa.
This supports the finding that trigger zones in the chest area lead to referred sensation in the legs.
Some spread in association within the cerebral cortex may also explain the large distances between trigger points and referred sensation sites.
The referred sensation itself should not be painful; it is more of an irritating prickle leading to the compulsion to scratch the area.
There is a published case in which stimulation in the thumb led to a referred sensation in the upper part of the tongue.
More extensive observations on the referral of sensation were documented by Kowalewsky, who observed referred sensations on himself.
Her research showed that phantom limb pain (rather than referred sensations) was the perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization.
He "concluded that satisfaction from penile penetration [is] mainly psychological or perhaps the result of referred sensation".
Ramachandran theorized that there was a relationship between the cortical reorganization evident in the MEG images and the referred sensations he observed in his subjects.
Referred itch is the class of referred sensation that focuses on the situation in which an itch in one place on the body simultaneously triggers an itch in a different location.
In testing a 45-year-old woman whose entire middle finger had been amputated when she was 16, he found that touching points on adjacent fingers evoked referred sensations at the same points on the phantom finger.
Although Ramachandran was one of the first scientists to emphasize the role of cortical reorganization as the basis for phantom limb sensations, subsequent research has demonstrated that referred sensations are not the perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization after amputation.
The cells in this tract lie in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and its axons run in the ipsilateral and dorsolateral quadrant, which is consistent with observations that stimuli in the trigger points are ipsilateral to the sites of referred sensations.