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Tissue sampling from levator ani muscles and fascia, illustrated in Fig.
It can be caused by cramp of the pubococcygeus or levator ani muscles.
Electrical stimulation of the levator ani muscle has been used to try to break the spastic cycle.
Three similar bands were also found in human levator ani muscle and fascia (lanes 15 and 16).
Pelvic floor formed by levator ani muscles.
The levator ani muscles, in quadruped animals with tails, are responsible for moving the tail around in the act of "wagging."
Levator ani nerve is a nerve to levator ani muscles.
Atrophy of the levator ani muscle and disease of the pudendal nerve may also contribute to a perineal hernia.
It is composed of fibers of the levator ani muscle which unite with the muscle of the opposite side.
Sometimes (in 40% of people) the inferior rectal nerve innervates the levator ani muscles independently of the pudendal nerve.
When compared to trophoblast culture, the p27 expression in levator ani muscles was lower, but higher then weak expression in whole placenta and rectus fascia.
Mesenchymal cells in levator ani muscle also showed LHR immunoreactivity (full arrowheads, Fig.
The levator ani muscles play an important role in bladder neck fixation provided by the suspensory sling and hiatal ligament [ 6 ] .
The levator ani muscles are mostly innervated by the pudendal nerve, perineal nerve and inferior rectal nerve in concert.
Immunohistochemistry Expression of p27 in levator ani muscle fibers of control asymptomatic women was restricted to the plasma membrane and adjacent nuclei (Fig.
The presacral fascia is limited postero-inferiorly, as it fuses with the mesorectal fascia, lying above the levator ani muscle, at the level of the anorectal junction.
It is not known if estrogen receptor beta is expressed, but levator ani muscle fibers show nuclear expression of progesterone and androgen receptors [ 26 ] .
Levator ani syndrome (also known as levator syndrome and proctodynia) is episodic rectal pain, caused by spasm of the levator ani muscle.
Table 1summarizes our observations, and suggests possible pathways for the transition of type II to type I fibers and progression of degeneration of levator ani muscle cells.
To preserve normal defecation, coccygectomy normally is accompanied by re-attachment (also known as re-approximation) of the two levator ani muscles and of the perineum, parts of the pelvic floor.
The fast twitch type II fibers in the levator ani muscles play an important role in continence, and their loss accompanies the development of urinary incontinence [ 9 ] .
At present, we are not able to determine if in asymptomatic postmenopausal women the p27 expression in levator ani muscles also increases with age, since non-urogynecological surgery, except cancer (excluded), is exceptional in such cases.