But the concept has never been translated into a formal alliance, and experts who study labor think Stern may be onto something important.
Another said, "We should consider making a formal alliance with them."
What he lacks is legitimacy, and a formal alliance with us would give him that.
These networks are formal alliances among companies within a given industry.
Despite their close ties the two states had no formal alliance.
But it is unlikely that those two parties would form an alliance, formal or otherwise.
"This is the first time we've had a formal alliance," she said.
France and Brazil entered a formal strategic alliance in 2008.
London refused to agree to the formal alliance that Germany sought.
But perhaps they do not need a formal alliance.