All relative methods make use of the contact potential difference between the sample and a reference electrode.
The reference electrode forms the other half cell, holding a consistent electrical potential.
This is in contrast to the poorly defined, large reference electrode.
Strictly speaking, the reference electrode does not require a separate compartment.
A conventional reference electrode can also be bulky and fragile.
The reference electrode is needed to provide a defined reference potential.
The literature is filled with discussions about the most appropriate site for the reference electrode to record each of the components.
The reference electrode is a half cell with a known reduction potential.
A reference electrode was applied on the skin of the abdomen.
Electrochemical potential is measured in the laboratory and field using reference electrodes.