At the Pu'u Loa Petroglyphs, early Hawaiians chiseled more than 20,000 drawings into pahoehoe lava.
It is thought that the early Hawaiians only came to Mokumanamana for religious purposes.
Nihoa was well known to the early Hawaiians.
The early native Hawaiians brought crops of their own when they settled the islands, although vegetation is bountiful, few plants are fit for eating.
"No one knows why the early Hawaiians left this place," Mr. Wichman said.
Mr. Wichman described himself as a caretaker of the valley in the spirit of the early Hawaiians.
Limu, together with sea salt and mashed kukui nuts were the ingredients of 'inamona, a seasoning mixture much enjoyed by early Hawaiians.
Before our group of 10 headed out on the Palikea Ridge trail, in the reserve, our guides said that the early Hawaiians used to ask permission from the forest before entering.
The chicks are charcoal-gray colored and were considered a delicacy by early Hawaiians.
Once a place of safety for early Hawaiians who had broken a kapu, or law, its long-houses and carvings are fully restored.