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Heterochromia has also been observed in those with Duane syndrome.
Duane syndrome has no particular race predilection.
Around 10-20% of cases are familial; these are more likely to be bilateral than non-familial Duane syndrome.
This condition is characterized by a particular problem with eye movement called Duane anomaly (also known as Duane syndrome).
Other causes of strabismus include Brown's syndrome, Duane syndrome, and monofixation syndrome.
Duane syndrome has been subdivided clinically into three types: Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3.
She described associations of Duane syndrome with craniofacial abnormalities, as well as dyslexia, thalidomide toxicity, and other first-trimester anomalies.
Duane syndrome cannot be cured, as the "missing" cranial nerve cannot be replaced, and traditionally there has been no expectation that surgery will result in any increase in the range of eye movement.
While usually isolated to the eye abnormalities, Duane syndrome can be associated with other problems including cervical spine abnormalities Klippel-Feil syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, heterochromia, and congenital deafness.
Background Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and Duane syndrome (DS) are complex strabismus disorders that present with congenital restrictive ophthalmoplegia with or without ptosis.
This disorder goes by several other names, including Duane syndrome, which is named after American ophthalmologist Alexander Duane (1858-1926), who studied several clinical cases of the disorder, and in 1905 provided a more comprehensive description of its symptoms.
The clinician must be persistent in examining abduction and adduction, and in looking for any associated palpebral fissure changes or head postures, when attempting to determine whether what often presents as a common childhood squint is in fact Duane syndrome.
Duane syndrome is characterized by limitation or absence of certain horizontal eye movements; retraction or "drawing back" of the eyeball into the eye cavity (orbit) upon attempting to look inward; and, in some cases, abnormal deviation of one eye in relation to the other (strabismus).
The group includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM), congenital ptosis, Marcus Gunn Jaw winking, Möbius syndrome, Crocodile tears, horizontal gaze palsy and congenital facial palsy, but this is not an exhaustive list.